Creating a Bibliography

A bibliography is a list of the information resources consulted in the process of preparing your assignment. The bibliography is placed at the end of an assignment and should provide sufficient details to enable the sources to be found with ease and accuracy.

List all items used alphabetically by author (surname then initials) or by title if the author is not known, followed by the year of publication. The titles of specific books, encyclopedias, newspapers, journals etc. are written in italics or underlined. The methods for creating entries in your bibliography for a range of resource types are listed below.

For book resources take information for your bibliography from the title page and the reverse side of the title page. Do not use information printed on the cover. 

For easy bibliography creation you could use the online referencing generator. This online tool provides templates for all the required fields for any type of information resource.

Senior students studying certain subjects may also be required to reference the sources of their ideas at the point in their essay when they introduce and discuss them.


Author(s) known

Author's surname, initials year, title of book, edition where appropriate, publisher, city.

For example:

Bloggs, J 2015, Salination of NSW pastureland, Sydney University Press, Sydney.

Smith, F & Jones, B 2010, Pastures of New South Wales, Longman, Sydney.

Fitzgerald, H, Hardy, L, Chen, P & Hardman, T 2012, Living soils, Pearson, Sydney.

Author not known

ICT in the classroom 2016, NSW Dept. of School Education, Sydney.

Edited book

Whitcombe, H (ed.) 2014, Dictionary of biology, Oxford University Press, Sydney.

Chapter of an edited book

Druitt, BC 2014, 'Pasture loss in irrigation areas' in Jones, T (ed.), Contemporary issues in NSW agriculture, Intervarsity Press, Sydney.


'Name of section' year, title of encyclopedia, publisher, city, volume number, page numbers.

For example:

'The Renaissance' 2011, World Book Encyclopedia, World Book, Chicago, vol.15, pp. 230-243.

Newspaper article

Author's surname, initials year, 'title of article', title of newspaper, date, page numbers.

For example:

Johnson, P 2011, 'Forgotten wilderness', Sydney Morning Herald, 17 February, p. 5.

Journal or periodical article

Author's surname, initials year, 'title of article', title of journal, volume and issue numbers or month, page numbers.

For example:

Harris, G 2010, 'Effects of irrigation on the Murray River', Australian Rural Quarterly, vol. 23, no. 2, pp.  54-59.


Name of disk year, CD ROM, publisher, city.

For example:

Across borders 2010, CD ROM, Dept. of Multicultural Affairs, Sydney.


Title year produced, format, publisher, place, date of broadcast if applicable.

For example:

Spirited away 2001, motion picture, Studio Ghibli, Tokyo.

Back to basics 2011, DVD, Mountford Studios, London.

Who's minding the house? 2012, television program, SBS Television, Sydney, 23 July.

Lives in the balance 2012, radio program, ABC Radio, Sydney, 16 February.

Online Sources

Web Page

Title of web page year of publication or the last revision, organisation, accessed date viewed by you,
< full URL >.

For example:

Introduced pests in Australia 2016, Landcare Australia, accessed 25 September 2016,
< >.

Note: If the web page states an author, then include the surname and initials before the title. The rule is to provide as much of the required information as is available.

For example:

Freestone, J Soil types in Australia 2016, Landcare Australia, accessed 25 September 2016,
< >.

Web Video

Author's surname, initials year, title of video, online video, accessed date viewed by you,
< full URL >.

For example:

Mason, P 2012, Nuclear energy processes, online video, accessed 21 October 2012,
< >.

Journal or newspaper article from a website

Author's surname, initials year, 'title of article', title of periodical, day month of periodical issue, accessed date viewed by you,
< full URL >.

For example:

O'Brien, GJ 2011, 'Matter of interest', Journal of astronomy, 5 March, accessed 11 August 2011,
< >.

Full-text article from an online database

Author's surname, initials year, 'title of article', title of journal, volume and issue number or month, page numbers, accessed date viewed by you, name of database, name of database provider, item: item number if available.

For example:

Cochrane, J 2010, 'Matter in question', Physics Quarterly, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 28-33, accessed 22 October 2011,  eLibrary, Proquest, item: CF23202.


Author's surname, initials year, email, date sent,
< email address >.

For example:

Johnson, S 2011, email, 24 June,
< >.

Note: Please seek permission from the sender before including an email address in a bibliography.

Personal communication

Person's surname, initials year of contact, pers. comm., person's address.

For example:

Smith, GH 2012, pers. comm., Main St, Grafton.

or where the person represents an organisation:

Grafton Neighbourhood Centre 2012, pers. comm., High St, Grafton.

Note: Please seek permission from the sender before including contact details in a bibliography.

For more detailed information please see the publication Style manual for authors, editors and printers available in the reference section of the college library.

There are also some very useful websites and apps, like:






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